Foreign policy is the result of complex interactions of different political fields. During the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War presented the dominating framework of international relations and United States foreign policy in particular. This context also influenced U.S. foreign policy in the Persian Gulf, yet, the approaches of the different administrations from Eisenhower to George H. W. Bush were highly diverse. This book seeks to explain the broad developments and contents of U.S. foreign policy in the Persian Gulf in the context of the Cold War. With regard to the constantly perceived Soviet threat, it intends to explain the foreign policy assumptions and strategies that have shaped American policies over the years and finally contributed to the terror attacks of September 11, 2001.