This book illustrates an important, systematic, and concise information regarding udder health and sub clinical mastitis (SCM)in cattle and buffaloes in Neapl. Authors emphasized on potent risk factors for SCM in buffalo, its impact on milk production. The book focused on milk hygiene describing common bacterial isolates in milk and antibiotic sensitivity profile. Furthermore this book provides valuable information on dairy livestock husbandry in under-developed country. The authors wish to make it comprehensive keeping information on milk hygiene, culture isolation and identification of most common bacteria in milk. It includes abundant information about milk hygiene in SAARC countries with special focus in Nepal. The content include discussion on udder health, milk hygiene and risk factors for mastitis in Nepalese livestock husbandry.