"Underdevelopment whirlpools" is a result of the loss of developing countries of a transaction factors system''s formation due to the time lags and the need to increase the system of transformation factors for innovative response to the rapidly evolving external environment''s impact. In Russian conditions "underdevelopment whirlpools" arise as consequence of extensive model of development. Only the regions with fields of raw materials are not in "underdevelopment whirlpools", the rest part of Russian territory is dragged into whirlpools of different depth. In this book, prepared for performing at the 6th International Scientific Conference: "Economic forecasting: models and methods", we examine problems of economic growth of Russian regions. Treating this subject we emphasize problems of differentiation and disproportion of economic growth, determine perspectives of reducing the economic growth lag between regions of Russia and developed countries.