Ecology and socio-economy has been crucial for biodiversity conservation all around the globe. The one-horned rhinoceros is also witnessing serious threats within its habitats. In Chitwan National Park, Nepal, rhino population shows dramatic fluctuation. Few years back it continued to decline because of widespread poaching. The book tries to argue that not only the marginalized households but also the well-to-do households are susceptible to poaching. This book highlights that people are involved in these activities due to three areas of conflict: resource availability, livelihood and biodiversity conservation. Buffer zone management committees, who receive 50% of the Park revenue, have a greater role in rhino conservation by enabling these poorer households to earn through any or all activities. This is a priority for buffer zone committees so that their livelihood is enhanced and survival of the rhino is less threatened. This book is expected to make constructive contribution towards park and its buffer zone management. It can also be a useful resource for further research and investigations.