There is a dearth of data on newborn health in Sub- Saharan Africa. Worldwide, almost four million babies die every year in the first month of life and another three millions are born dead, and are a hindrance to achieving child survival targets. The highest rates are in Africa. The World Health Organisation identified sixteen key practices that if properly used by all parents could reduce newborn deaths by 72%, but these are currently not reaching most newborn babies in Africa. This book comprehensively assesses delays which lead to newborn deaths, and the acceptability at community level of the evidence-based newborn care practices. In addition, the capacity of the current health system to manage newborn babies in Uganda is assessed and discussed. The book ends by outlining possible strategies for improving the design of interventions for better neonatal health in emerging health systems such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. The book is targeted to policy makers, advocates, and researchers with interest in health systems and maternal and newborn health in low income countries.