In a world that generally embraces a capitalist economic philosophy, full employment seems a utopian dream and there is a certain resignation that this scourge is here to stay. Solving high unemployment has for many years been a major theme in political campaigns reflecting the general level of preoccupation among the electorate. Unemployment is also one of the prime drivers of xenophobia and racism, as immigration is often cited as the main cause. France, like its neighbors, has suffered continually from relatively high unemployment rates over the years but in many ways the French context is significantly different and worth exploring. This study examines unemployment in France and Europe using the most recent statistics and facts, as well as the relevant historical evidences available since the second half of 20th century. It entails the multiple causes and consequences of unemployment in France, which are discussed above all from a human resources point of view as well as economical and political angles to establish a better understanding as a conceptual basis upon which to formulate solutions.