The people of Irian Jaya have struggled for decades against the Indonesian authority, with the aim of obtaining independence. The resistance movement, the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM), emerged soon after the controversial United Nations sponsored ‘Act of Free Choice’ held in 1969. Despite the decades long resistance the Papuan freedom movement failed to achieve any significant success. This failure can be starkly contrasted with the success of East Timor who got away from Indonesia through the ‘Popular Consultation’ in 1999 with a successful resistance movement through FRETILIN (Armed Forces of National Liberation of East Timor). This book will attempt an analysis of the two freedom movements of East Timor and Irian Jaya and tries to make a comparative study of the two issues. It will also examine the contrasting role of the United Nations in terms of making peace in these two territories of the Indonesian archipelago through the acts of self-determination. It will also explore the inevitable question as to what lessons in the East Timor experience may be of value to the Indonesian Government in terms of how they might best tackle the Irian Jaya situation.