The majority of the 500 million EU citizens enjoy widest freedom of movement ever since border controls between Schengen countries have been abolished. At the same time, third country nationals face increased immigration restrictions and tightened border controls. Another phenomenon is that border controls shifted away from the borders of EU Member States to the High Seas and third country territories. This book examines human rights obliations of EU Member States and the EU, as well as the role of the EU Border Agency Frontex in this process of exterritorialisation of border control measures. It also raises the questions of Europe's values and its legal and humanistic fundaments.