It is indisputable that land is the basis for all kinds of livelihood in all regions of the world especially in Rwanda where it constitutes the most important factors of production and survival. Many land owners do not use their land while others do not have land but they wish to use it. As result, land becomes a property to be sold and this result in what is commonly known as land market. This market is recognized and accepted but the process and mechanism through which operate only matters. Policies, regulations, procedures and laws enforcing the better use and management of land especially in urban areas are not legitimately followed by land market actors. This Book analyzes the functioning of land market in Nyanza Town, Rwanda; with three specific objectives: (1) Evaluation of the state of land acquisition and land transaction in terms of legality, cost and value, (2) Identification of factors influencing land market and the actors of this market and (3) Provide alternative solution for land market efficiency in Nyanza Town.