The production of more food from less land, water and other concerned resources is one of the main challenges before agricultural scientists today. These challenges can be accomplished only through new technologies as the existing technologies do not seem to be adequate. Recent advances made in biotechnology in the form of genetically modified organisms offer exciting opportunities to address some of these challenges. Transgenic technology in crops is one of the most powerful methods and has already made some breakthrough in this field. But there have been many concerns shown against this technology like their acceptability ethically, ecologically as well as technologically by various groups throughout the globe. These and such type of comprehensions, apprehensions, ethical and ecological concerns has been discussed in this book with special reference to India. Different types of problems as well as prospects have been thoroughly discussed as well. At the end of book some useful suggestions have been put forward regarding the future research in this field.