Feeds constitute a large proportion (50-70%) of the total cost of livestock production, which could be more when animals are not efficient in utilizing the local feedstuffs. In Asia, livestock is largely dependent on the rice straw during the cropping seasons and in dry periods when other feeds are scarce and animals have limited or no access to grazing. Moreover, the scarcity of arable and pasture land with the increasing demand of animal feed leads to increased utilization of crop residues in general and particularly rice straw for ruminant feeding. Smallholder farmers are also showing greater interests in using rice straw to feed livestock because of their low cost and availability, especially after grain harvest and when grass/fodder are limiting. However, poor nutritional quality restrict the maximum utilization of rice straw to feed ruminants and appears as principal constraint of profitable livestock production and viability of small farming systems. Hence, exploration of the potential use of crop residues as livestock feed and utilization of rice straw through an attempt to produce ready-to-feed total mixed ration is advantageous for intensive livestock production in Asia.