Ophthalmooncology with innumerable terms appears often like a mysterious subject for physicians of other specialties and the other scientists. This monograph introduces to the part of ophthalmology, especially the problems of intraocular tumors and intraocular uveal melanoma. Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor. Radiation therapy has now replaced enucleation as the treatment of choice, with radioactive eye plaques and proton therapy being the two most studied radiotherapeutic modalities. More recently, stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have emerged as promising, non-invasive treatments for uveal melanoma. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a method, which may be considered like a „not true surgery“ because no incisions are involved. Instead, it is an advanced method of radiation therapy that delivers high doses of radiation to very small areas and volumes.