Ethiopia has been the victim of drought and rainfall variability. Rainfall distribution and rate of evapotranspiration are climatic factors that influence agricultural production. Therefore, understanding their variability is important for proper planning of crop selection and cropping calendar. In this book the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall distribution and evapotranspiration over Eastern Amhara region in Ethiopia has been analyzed. The results indicated that the entire region can be classified into three homogeneous zones depending up on their moisture availability indexes. Moisture deficit areas were also identified. As it is common in arid and semi-arid regions, the temporal variability of evapotranspiration in the study area is low compared to that of rainfall.