Vascular endothelial growth factor a 46 KD homodimeric glycoprotein is an endothelial – specific growth factor that is essential for angiogenesis Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates interstitial collagenase production, Von Willebrand Factor release, and enhanced procoagulant activity. It induces permeability of fluids and proteins. It is 50,000 times more potent than histamine. Vascular endothelial growth factor is detectable in periodontal tissues within endothelial cells, plasma cells, macrophages and in junctional, sulcular and gingival epithelium.Diabetes mellitus is considered as a systemic risk factor for periodontal disease. Various investigations revealed the contribution of diabetes mellitus to periodontitis and to the severity via its effects on vasculature, inflammatory and immune response, alterations in collagen synthesis and genetic predisposition. It has been demonstrated that diabetes mellitus results in increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in numerous tissues as a response to both hyperglycemia and tissue ischemia Diabetes Mellitus may have an inductive effect on vascular endothelial growth factor levels in periodontal disease.