The importance of wildlife especially the vertebrates for game, tourism and medicine can not be over emphasized. Nature reserves are known to influence their locations. Increase in physical development is diminishing the habitat available for wild fauna. Inventory of the resources in relation to their habitat parameters would inform a better management of the resource. An assessment of the vertebrate diversity of Alabata Nature Reserve, South West Nigeria was carried out.Thryonomys swinderianus was the most abundant animal species while Daniellia oliveri was the most abundant plant species. Wild fire appears to be the greatest threat to the reserve.This has to be controlled for the reserve to achieve its full potentials.