Vincristine and vinblastine are two important anticancerous alkaloids present in Catharanthus roseus. Isolation of these compounds from in vivo grown plants is impeded by low productivity, is therefore very expensive. Biotechnological methodologies have recently been employed in improving the yield. In this monograph, somatic embryogenesis ? an important biotechnology based technique has been described as to enrich alkaloid levels in C. roseus. Biomass production by optimizing embryo proliferation, maturation and large scale plantlets development has been discussed. The influence of cultural conditions and other controlling factor''s role has been evaluated. The monograph discusses the applications of overproducing mutant cell lines after successful in vitro mutagenesis. The augmentation possibility of cell biomass by employing large scale fermenter/ bioreactor has also been suggested for commercial applications. The established protocol may offer an ideal opportunity in developing Catharanthus transgenics enmasse.