Over the last few decades, Buddhist meditation is increasingly being employed by psychologists and psychiatrists to heal a variety of health conditions such as anxiety and depression. Moreover, Buddhists pursue meditation as the path toward Enlightenment. This work provides an analysis of the two inter-related processes of Buddhist meditation, samatha (calm abiding) and vipassan?. Despite their frequent appearance in the Buddhist canonical and commentarial texts, most scholars have not settled the exact role of samatha and vipassan? in the path of enlightenment. They continue to remain divided over the question as to how samatha and vipassan? are related. This book contributes to the eventual resolution of this question for the Buddhist presentation of the way to liberation. The determination will focus on the clarification of samatha, vipassan?, and their collaboration by examining the existing scholarship and the textual evidence of the doctrines as presented in the P?li scriptures.