We live in a potentially hostile world filled with a bewildering array of infectious agents.One of the neglected infectious disease is Visceral leishmaniasis. With the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s, the disease spectrum caused by the Leishmania parasites has changed significantly. Visceral leishmaniasis is prevalent throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe (old world) and South and Central America (new world). It is endemic in 62 countries, with a total of 200 million people at risk, an estimated 500 000 symptomatic new cases each year worldwide.After clinical screening, 1280 sera were tested by Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) to determine prevalence of leishmanial antibody and Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was used to determine exposure. This book , therefore, givee you a detailed information on Visceral leishmaniasis which is very useful for health professional of all discipline.