Vitellaria paradoxa ssp. niltica is one of the subspecies of the genus Vitellaria (Gaertner f.) with the oldest known Botanical specimen apparently collected by Mungo Park in 1797. The ssp. niltica occurs in Uganda, Sudan, Zaire marginally extending to Ethiopia, is found in Gambela Region at an altitude of ?600 m.a.s.l, in areas receiving 600 to 1400 mm rainfall. The ssp. nilotica is commonly known as Yao, in Uganda, Lulu, in Sudan and ‘Wodo'' in Ethiopia. Often it is also known as the “GOD “gave tree to Africa. It is a source of many products and services including botanicals, pharmaceuticals and ‘cosmeceuticals'', but the oil/butter produced out of the kernels/nuts is by far the most important. This book, therefore, offers the full information on the distribution of the natural population, ecology, the variation among the natural population, structure, composition and management practices of the species. It also provides the calendar for fruit maturity, collection, handling, and oil processing techniques, the seasonal changes on fruiting and the productivity of the trees etc which otherwise would have been limiting to all who depend on the species.