Vocabulary is essential for any language. Yet, the outcomes of second language vocabulary learning are far from satisfactory for most learners. This is especially true with learners of English in mainland China. In this input-poor context, vocabulary has been baffling millions of people learning English. The importance of vocabulary learning strategies is known to teachers and students, who also instinctively know the use of vocabulary learning strategies is influenced by vocabulary learning beliefs, including the under-researched motivational beliefs. With a highly homogeneous sample whose size is considerable, this book reports the first comprehensive study in mainland China on vocabulary learning strategies and beliefs that addresses motivational vocabulary learning beliefs. The goal of research into beliefs and strategies is to facilitate teaching and learning. Though the book focuses on the Chinese learners of English, much of what is found should be relevant to teaching and learning in other parts of the world.