In recent years, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV has been acknowledged internationally as an efficacious and pivotal strategy for both HIV/AIDS prevention and referral into care and treatment. China started providing free VCT service by implementing the China CARES program in 51 community-based HIV/AIDS comprehensive care pilot centers in regions with the greatest number of HIV/AIDS cases in 2003. However, the rate of acceptance of VCT is unknown in some areas and is known to be low in other areas. This report presents the results of a study conducted in southwest China to find the level of acceptance of VCT and barriers to VCT among adults in two different areas, one in which the “China CARES” project was operating and one in which it was not. The results of the study can provide information to develop more effective VCT services and intervention and prevention program, and should be useful to health providers who want to improve VCT service.