Developing countries are generally considered more vulnerable to the effects of climate change than more developed countries. Of the developing countries, many in Africa are seen as being the most vulnerable to climate variability and change. In Ethiopia like some other African countries, flooding, as a result of climate change has brought serious damages in recent years. Torrential down pours are common in most parts of the country. Intense rainfall in the highlands causes flooding of settlements close to any stretch of river course. In Dire Dawa, where the city lies at the foot hills of a mountain range, there is a large waterway often dry with no water which divides the city into two. This waterway during the rainy season suddenly grows to a large river by making the local community vulnerable to flooding. This research attempts to see the entire contexts and linkages of various elements of vulnerability, livelihoods and coping mechanisms of flood prone communities by using Sustainable Livelihood Framework; therefore the book is helpful for any social workers, professionals, researchers, and NGOs who are working in the area of flood prone communities.