The study analyzed temperature and precipitation records of last 3 decades (1980-2009) and peoples? perception of the observed variation in climate. The study revealed that overall temperature in the area is rising which is in parity with the observed temperature trends in Nepal. However, the precipitation trend show high fluctuation with increased rainfall intensities and decreased rainy days. Heavy rainfall events have become pronounced since last 5 years. Tharu communities have experienced increasing floods, inundation and drought in recent years increasing disaster risks. There is no significant evidence of adaptive responses hence they need to work on to enhance their resilience so that they can withstand the threats, likely to increase with emerging climate change. The study also examined other impacts such as increase in insects and pests and change in time of crop harvest etc. This research concluded that the extreme weather events have increased the vulnerability of agriculture based livelihood of Tharu community demanding immediate attention to enable to adapt to the emerging threat. Recommendations have been made to enhance the Tharu?s adaptive capacity.