W.H.O infant feeding options are presented as a package in the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child. These infant feeding options are namely exclusive breastfeeding, replacement feeding and other options such as wet nursing by a tested HIV negative woman and heat treated breast milk. However, in Zambia, like many other poor countries, the cultural attitude towards breastfeeding is that the breastfeeding period generally goes up to two years. This traditional way of feeding is so much rooted in local culture that any cessation of breastfeeding or any introduction of alternative feeding would be a source of concern at community and family levels. In addition, it is a well known fact that stigma and discrimination are still high in the country. It is with this background that we decided to carry out a study in Mongu district which aimed at assessing HIV positive mothers'' knowledge of WHO infant feeding options and looking at the challenges they face vis-à-vis these recommended feeding options.