Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have both been recently entrenched in genocide and civil war, with members of ethnic minorities ritually attacked and killed in an effort to annihilate the entire ethnic group. Rwanda and the DRC also share a history of colonial rule. This work begins with an examination of the effects of colonization on indigenous people, with an exploration of the effects of colonization on genocide. Next, the effects that modern warfare has on women’s health and well-being are explored, beginning with the general concepts of colonization and war, moving specifically to the experiences of women affected by the wars in Rwanda and the DRC. The ways that the health and well-being of these women have been affected by war are explored, and possible links these effects have to a history of colonial rule are examined. Informed by interviews with survivors and and in-depth literature review, this work transcends mere criticism of these wars and offers suggestions that may help influence policy, humanitarian aid, and the establishment of contextually appropriate relief efforts in future times of crisis.