Membrane bioreactor is an innovative technology for Wastewater treatment. The book provides in-depth understanding of Membrane Bioreactor technology for wastewater treatment and reuse. The objective of the research was to mitigate fouling in membrane bioreactors using biofilm carriers; Sponge was used as moving media. Background theory is discussed in Chapter 1 which provides the research objectives achieved. Chapter 2 provides basic insight of the MBR technology, membrane fouling mechanism, factors and mitigation approaches. Chapter 3 provides the detailed methodology applied to achieve research objectives, the protocols followed to determine parameters pertinent to MBR performance and operation. Chapter 4 provides the results obtained. Chapter 5 provides the conclusions drawn and recommendations for further study. This book is a useful tool for students and professionals having interest in Membrane Bioreactor and wastewater treatment.