Despite the known dangers associated with use of untreated water, the quality of water sources in Tropics is largely unknown. Use of untreated water has led to waterborne diseases as reported in dispensaries and hospitals. Although natural resources with the potential for water purification in tropical regions are readily available, no attempt has been made to utilize these resources in water treatment. This work therefore assessed the physico-chemical and bacteriological qualities of drinking water from various sources and determined the effectiveness of a number of treatment options. The aim of this book is to guide the communities carefully on simple and practical way of treating the drinking water at domestic level setting. If combined with commercial methods used in water treatment, it can be a savior to the world from millions of deaths resulting from waterborne diseases. Mechanical filtration, U-tube filtration using PVC pipes (all filled with charcoal, gravel and sand) and solar irradiation using plastic bottles and polythene papers placed at different environments are well outlined in this book with the actual results which were obtained during a study in Kenya.