Current knowledge of the chemical transformations that occur underwater in historical wooden objects is far from adequate, yet it is of paramount importance for their recovering, conservation and exhibition. As yet, no definitive optimal conservation treatments for waterlogged wood artifacts assessed, and they depend on many factors that vary from case to case. This work aims to develop suitable methodologies for conserving wooden artifacts. It describes a comprehensive analytical study of the chemical changes produced in archaeological waterlogged woods collected from San Rossore (Pisa, Italy), Biskupin and ?ó?te (Poland) sites. The physical and chemical characteristics of the collected materials were studied using three techniques: direct exposure electron ionization - mass spectrometry (DE-MS), pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and X-ray synchrotron radiation microtomography (SR-?CT). This volume is addressed to graduates, novices and experts in the fields of analytical chemistry and conservation sciences as well as cultural heritage studies.