The Government of India after Independence laid greater stress on developing agriculture,since agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. Indian agriculture in general and dry land agriculture in particular exhibit low production and productivity levels. Out of 143 million hectares of cultivable land in India, major part of it is under dry land conditions. Nearly 80 percent of the population lives in villages and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Government of India had launched Watershed Development Programme for Rain fed Agriculture. Hence the study has demonstrated the most important role of watershed development programme is considered the best programme to conserve soil and water, increase vegetation and water resources, and improve productivity of crops, employment opportunities to rural folk and food intake in terms of nutrition value. The study provides lot of useful insights for the planners, administrators and politicians in the area of watershed management and the farmer’s participation in implementing it. This book will be of considerable interest to students and schools of development, Earth sciences as well as to NGOs and the lay reader.