Revision with unchanged content. While a single fiber strand in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has over a terabit-per-second bandwidth and a wavelength channel has over a gigabit-per-second transmission speed, the network may still be required to support traffic requests at rates that are lower than the full wavelength capacity. To avoid assigning an entire lightpath to a small request, many researchers have looked at adding traffic grooming to the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem. In this work, we consider the RWA problem with traffic grooming (GRWA) for mesh networks under static and dynamic lightpath connection requests. The GRWA problem is NP-Complete since it is a generalization of the RWA problem which is known to be NP-Complete. We propose an integer linear programming (ILP) model that accurately depicts the GRWA problem. Because it is very hard to find a solution for large networks using ILP, we solve the GRWA problem by proposing two novel heuristics. The strength of the proposed heuristics stems from their simplicity, efficiency and applicability to large-scale networks. The book is addressed to professionals in optical communcation networks like professors, students and engineers.