The complexity of translating prose fiction cannot be grasped without a clear picture of the different aspects of translation as a cross-cultural activity. Part of the problem of the existing misconceptions concerning different kinds of translation and interpreting is the fact that the terminological apparatus of translation studies is still in a state of flux. The overarching aim of this book is to clarify some important aspects of translation theory and practice in order to make translating and evaluating translations more transparent and more widely understood. Part I of the book considers some topical issues of translation theory. Part II examines the challenges involved in attaining the level of “expert professionalism” in translation from the perspective of expertise studies. Although the book’s focus is on “written” literary translation, the issues discussed are relevant to other kinds of translation, including interpretation (“oral” translation). The book will be interesting and useful not only for students of Russian-to-English and English-to-Russian translation but also for beginning and practicing translators, irrespective of their working languages.