This book is based on a longitudinal ethnographic case study on the phenomenon of first language (L1) maintenance and attrition of three individual adult immigrants from mainland China and Taiwan to Canada. In this study the L1 maintenance/attrition is investigated from both a linguistic perspective and a social perspective. Using an unique combination of life stories describing the participants'' personal linguistic and social experiences especially within the context of the phase after they immigrated to Canada and the results of linguistic assessments through different tasks, including interviews in both English and Chinese, the book provides a detailed examination of the phenomenon of L1 maintenance and attrition among the three young Chinese immigrants. The findings of the study provide support for the view that a collaborative, inclusive approach to education that involves not only immigrant students, but also their families, educational systems, and society in general facilitates young immigrants'' bilingualism and acculturation. Effective linguistic practices for L1 maintenance and development are also suggested based on the findings of the study.