Wheat is one of the first cereals known to have been domesticated, and wheat's ability to self-pollinate greatly facilitated the selection of many distinct domesticated varieties. Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species. Chloroplasts are the best known organelle in plant cell. They participate essential metabolic and biosynthetic functions of comprehensive significance, including photosynthesis. They are strongly reliant on proteins that are nuclear encoded, translational in the cytoplasm, and imported into the chloroplast. Chloroplast enclosed thylakoid membrane system that carries the photosynthetic electron transport chain converting light energy into chemical energy. High-throughput proteomics using hybrid mass spectrometry has a high potential value to predict metabolic pathway incidence and to define dogmatic levels of gene expression on a large scale. Leaves are the final site of salinity perception through the roots. Increased climate variability is affecting crop yield and quality. Ameliorating this predicament will require an investigation of how plants respond to stresses such as a reduced supply of water.