The military defeat of the LTTE by the Government of Sri Lanka in May 2009 ended twenty-six years of war which caused the displacement of more than 1.1 million civilians and claimed more than 150,000 lives. Winning the war was a great achievement for the Government, however, the victory of comprehensive peace still appears as a far goal. This book analyses the case of Sri Lanka to adapt existing theories of post-war recovery to civil wars ending through the decisive military victory of one actor. The book recommends the institution of an interim period for initial socioeconomic and political reconstruction to precede a broader process of long-term holistic recovery. As a matter of fact, as the study of post-war recovery expanded greatly after the Cold War, it mainly focused on recovery after negotiated settlements, which represented the most common conclusion for conflicts in the last two decades. However, there is no reason to believe that this trend will continue indefinitely. The study of possible strategies for the recovery of Sri Lanka is therefore a precious tool in the hands of peace workers willing to successfully address the new challenges this century may have in store.