Social security system is understood as a set of social arrangement to protect the members of the society from extreme deprivation and insecurity. In a way it is intended to assist individuals from the falling levels in the standard of living. Social security, based on reciprocity and solidarity at the household or community level, is facing tremendous adjustment problems due to the changing socio economic nature of society. This study was conducted in two districts of Kerala in India, namely, Alappuzha (in central Kerala) and Thiruvananthapuram (in south Kerala). Kerala is credited with a number of social security measures such as employment schemes, public distribution system, anti-poverty programmes, land reforms and other welfare measures. Social security provisions in Kerala are expanded with the aim of reducing the socio economic inequalities. This research investigates the problem of local social security at the micro level of kinship and community in Kerala. It also looks at the impact of the shrinking public distribution system.