As a large number of women going to participate in economic activities, in the near future, who have to pass through the childbearing ages, it is necessary to see whether female work participation has any impact on their reproductive health. For this purpose, a field study was designed to examine the relationship between women?s work participation and reproductive health among the poor populations in rural and urban areas. The study was conducted among working and non-working women in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Results showed that work participation of women enhances female autonomy of women only in urban areas. Women working at the time of pregnancy are at disadvantageous side in utilizing maternal care services than women who did not work during pregnancy. The study also found that working women are more likely to report antenatal, postnatal and gynecological morbidity as compared to non-working women.