Work motivation and work values have been investigated by numerous scholars, but few empirical studies have been conducted in Eastern Europe, and even fewer in Romania. The studies reported in this book contribute to filling this gap, making use of qualitative and quantitative data collected in Romania between 2012 and 2013. First, leading motivation theories are briefly presented, along with methodological developments and measurement shortcomings. Second, statistical data concerning the Romanian labor market are discussed. Figures from the last wave of the European Values Study and data from a qualitative research are used to illustrate main trends and orientations regarding the work values and attitudes of Romanian employees. Third, a factorial survey study on distributive justice judgments as perceived by young Romanians is reported. Finally, research data concerning Romanians’ equity sensitivity are presented, along with directions for future cross-cultural investigation based on equity theory.