The book essentially is an account of the work participation in Ethiopia. It profiles the trends, patterns and determinants of work participation in Ethiopia for the period 1994 to 2005/2006. Further, an examination on the role of individual and household characteristics that determine work participation has been carried out using both descriptive analysis and in a cause-effect relation by estimating Probit regression model disaggregated at national level, urban-rural and gender wise. The results of the study have shown that gender, age, disability status, being head of the household, number of children a woman has and live birth for women, migration status, education and training and location factors has an impact on the probability of an individual’s work participation. The policy implication is that government policy should gear towards solving labour market entry barriers of individuals specially that of the youth and women. Moreover, various policies for achieving steady economic and social development and full productive employment should be formulated so as to increase job opportunities and reduce the existing unemployment in the country.