Musculoskeletal disorders have been observed and experienced widely at workplaces where the computers are frequently used. Increase in the number of employees working with computer and mouse coincides with an increase of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and sick leave, which affects the physical health of workers and pose financial burdens on the companies, governmental and non-governmental organizations. This literature review study begins with the description of the risk factors and types of musculoskeletal disorders, and followed by the discussion of general characteristics of the musculoskeletal disorders. The economic impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders was reviewed. This was followed by the discussion of issues related with workplace ergonomics, and an extensive review of computer use related upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders. Finally, the literature review is concluded with a discussion of computer keyboarding with different postures and different keyboard designs.