Dyslexia has been well researched and the source of much controversy. A variety of explanations for the disability has been put forward with impaired working memory implicated as one of the contributing factors to the deficits observed. South Africa presents a unique context and has not received as much focus regarding dyslexia and how impairments in working memory contribute to the disability as there has been elsewhere. The purpose of this work is to address the relationship between working memory and dyslexia as well as discern characteristics that may aid in identifying children with the disability at a younger age. The findings presented provide some evidence that children with dyslexia do have short- term memory and working memory difficulties, and utilise different memory constructs in their short-term and working memory processing within both the verbal and visuospatial domains. This book therefore would be useful to those who are interested in pursuing further investigations in working memory and dyslexia within developing countries and specifically the South African context.